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The differences between a Kibbutz and a Moshav

A Kibbutz (meaning in Hebrew "gathering") is a form of cooperative settlement unique to Zionism, correlated to the Yishuv and the State of Israel.

It is based on Zionist aspirations for renewed settlement in the Land of Israel and on socialist values. The kibbutz is usually a small settlement with several hundred residents, and its livelihood comes from agriculture and industry. The typical kibbutz was formed as a closely knit social grouping, sharing all property and means of production and labor. It also provided for all the needs of its members. As Israel evolved into a more liberal economy, many ideologically based aspects of the kibbutz vanished.

The first "kibbutzim" were established long before Israel's creation, the first being Deganya Aleph (close to the Kinneret), founded in 1910.

A resident or member of a kibbutz is called a "Kibbutznik".

A Moshav is an agricultural or rural settlement, where there is no economic partnership between residents, with other cooperative characteristics, such as mutual guarantees and community management.

In contrast to the original kibbutz, the family is an independent economic unit that operates within mutual aid rules. Each seat member is assigned a plot, usually for agriculture. Today, in some of the moshavim additional people live, who are not members of the cooperative framework and are referred to as residents.

The Moshavim were originally developed by the Zionist socialist parties (Poale Zion and Ha'poel Hatzaïr, then Mapai). Most of them received land allocated to them by the State / Yishuv institutions. The first Moshav, Nahalal (near Afula), was established in September 1921.

A resident or member of a Moshav can be called a "moshavnik".




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